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The U.N. climate panel has released its most comprehensive assessment https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg1 of climate change yet.
Here are some of the report's main conclusions:
HUMANS ARE TO BLAME - FULL STOP
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) used its strongest terms yet to assert that humans are causing climate change, with the first line of its report summary reading: "It is unequivocal that human influence has warmed the atmosphere, ocean and land."
The stark language marked a shift from previous IPCC reports, which had said it was "extremely likely" that industrial activity was to blame.
"There is no uncertainty language in this sentence, because there is no uncertainty that global warming is caused by human activity and the burning of fossil fuels," said IPCC co-author Friederike Otto, a climatologist at University of Oxford.
TEMPERATURES WILL KEEP RISING
The report describes possible futures depending on how dramatically the world cuts emissions.
But even the severest of cuts are unlikely to prevent global warming of 1.5 degrees Celsius above preindustrial temperatures. Without immediate steep emissions cuts, though, average temperatures could cruise past 2C by the end of the century.
The scientists also looked at events considered less likely but still possible, and they could not rule out big impacts from so-called tipping points, such as the loss of Arctic ice loss or the dieback of forests.
WEATHER IS GETTING EXTREME
Weather extremes once considered rare or unprecedented are becoming more common -- a trend that will continue even if the world limits global warming to 1.5C.
Severe heat waves that happened only once every 50 years are now happening roughly once a decade. Tropical cyclones are getting stronger. Most land areas are seeing more rain or snow fall in a year. Severe droughts are happening 1.7 times as often. And fire seasons are getting longer and more intense.
Scientific advances in the last decade are also helping scientists detect whether climate change caused or worsened specific weather events.
"In the past, people would say 'you can't say anything about any individual event,'" said IPCC co-author Michael Wehner, a climate scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. "But now we can actually make quantitative statements about extreme weather events."
ARCTIC SUMMERS COULD SOON BE FREE OF ICE
Summertime sea ice atop the Arctic Ocean will vanish entirely at least once by 2050, under the IPCC's most optimistic scenario. The region is the fastest-warming area of the globe - warming at least twice as fast as the global average.
While Arctic sea ice levels vary throughout the year, the average lows during summer have been decreasing since the 1970s and are now at their lowest levels in a thousand years. This melting creates a feedback loop, with reflective ice giving way to darker water that absorbs solar radiation, causing even more warming.